Encoding HTML Special Characters

from Bruce A. Johnson

please see
As a convenient reference for ourselves and our users we have re-interpreted Bruce Johnson's very useful but non responsive categorised page of html character codes into this responsive format.

Display format

Note: (1) the actual character & (3) the numeric code is included for every character shown and in some cases (2) the alphabetic character & (4) description are also included.
for example:
(1) ≥ (2) &ge (3) &#8805 (4) {greater-than or equal to}
(1) Actual character to be displayed on your web page
(2) The alphabetic HTML character code you need to include in your page input to display the desired character - requires an ampersand prefix (&)
(3) The numeric HTML character code you need to include in your page input to display the desired character - requires an ampersand and hash prefix (&#)
(4) The name or description of the character {in curly brackets}

To use the character codes in HTML

Remember to put the ampersand (&)or the ampersand (&)and hash (#), before, and the semicolon (;), after.
Only the numbered codes require a hash (#), before the code number.

The contents of this page

1. Regular Characters that are special in HTML
2. Special Punctuation
3. Outline or Proof reading
4. Legal Marks
5. Currency Symbols
6. Mathematics
7. Fractions
8. Lines & Spaces
9. Arrows
10. Boxes
11. Astronomical Symbols
12. Zodiac
13. Playing Card Suits
14. Unclassified Characters
15. Character Modifiers
16. Modified Latin Letters
17. Greek Letters
18. Modified Greek Letters

1. Regular Characters that are special in HTML and/or Deskspace CMS

This is because they are used for special purposes when the browser renders the web page, thus to actually display these characters you need to include them in your page input in the encoded form.
" " " {quotation mark}
& & & {ampersand}
< &lt; &#60; {less than}
> &38gt; &#62; {greater than}
&nbsp; &#160; {Non-breaking space}
( &#65288; {open parenthesis}
) &#65289; {close parenthesis}
[[ &#65339;&#65339; {open double square bracket}
]] &#65341;&#65341; {close double square bracket}

2. Special Punctuation

‘ &lsquo; &#145; &#8216; {left single quote}
’ &rsquo; &#146; &#8217; {right single quote}
“ &ldquo; &#147; &#8220; {left double quote}
” &rdquo; &#148; &#8221; {right double quote}
‛ &#8219; {single backwards right quote}
„ &bdquo; &#132; &#8222; {double comma}
… &hellip; &#133; &#8230; {ellipsis}
‼ &#8252; {double exclamation mark}
¡ &iexcl; &#161; {upside-down exclamation mark}
¿ &iquest; &#191; {upside-down question mark}
‽ &#8253; {interrobang}

3. Outline or Proofreading & Ticks / Checks

§ &sect; &#167; {section}
¶ &para; &#182; {paragraph}
† &dagger; &#134; &#8224; {dagger}
‡ &Dagger; &#135; &#8225; {double dagger}
☐ &#9744; &#x2611;empty box
☑ &#9745; &#x2611;small tick / checkmark in box
☒ &#9746; &#x2611;small cross in box
✓ &#10003; &#x2713;tick / checkmark
✔ &#10004; &#x2714;larger tick / checkmark
✅ &#9989; white on green button tick / checkmark
𐄂 &#65794; cross / checkmark
✗ &#10007; cross / checkmark
✘ &#10008; cross / checkmark
❎ &#x274e; white on green button cross / checkmark

4. Legal Marks

™ &trade; &#153; &#8482; {trademark}
© &copy; &#169; {copyright}
® &reg; &#174; {registered}

5. Currency Symbols

¤ &curren; &#164; {currency}
¢ &cent; &#162; {cent}
€ &euro; &#128; &#8364; {euro}
£ &pound; &#163; {English pound}
₤ &#8356;
¥ &yen; &#165; {Japanese yen}
₧ &#8359;{Spanish peseta}

6. Mathematics

‰ &permil; &#137; &#8240; {per mille}
¬ &not; &#172; {not}
⌐ &#8976;
degree ° &deg; &#176;
¹ &sup1; &#185; {exponent one}
² &sup2; &#178; {exponent two}
³ &sup3; &#179; {exponent three}
ⁿ &#8319; {exponent n}
º &ordm; &#186; {exponent zero (or male ordinal)}
ª &ordf; &#170; {exponent a (or female ordinal)}
∟ &#8735;
¯ &macr; &#175; {macron}
× &times; &#215; {multiply}
÷ &divide; &#247; {divide}
′ &prime; &#8242; {prime}
″ &Prime; &#8243; {double prime}
⁄ &frasl; &#8260; &#8725; {fraction slash}
∂ &part; &#8706; {partial differential}
∏ &prod; &#8710; {n-ary product}
∑ &sum; &#8721; {n-ary summation}
℮ &#8494; {Euler's number or Napier's constant}
Ω &#8486; {ohm or Omega constant}
&#8710; {change}
µ &micro; &#181; {micro (one millionth)}
See Greek Letters for more.
− &minus; &#8722; {minus}
∙ &#8729; {dot product}
√ &radic; &#8730; {square root}
∞ &infin; &#8734; {infinity}
∩ &cap; &#8745; {intersection}
∫ &int; &#8747; {integral}
⌠ &#8992; {integral: upper half}
⌡ &#8993; {integral: lower half}
≈ &asymp; &#8776; {almost equal to}
≠ &ne; &#8800; {not equal to}
≡ &equiv; &#8801; {equivalent}
≤ &le; &#8804; {less-than or equal to}
≥ &ge; &#8805; {greater-than or equal to}
± &plusmn; &#177; {plus or minus}

7. Fractions

¼ &frac14; &#188; {one-quarter}
½ &frac12; &#189; {one-half}
¾ &frac34; &#190; {three-quarters}
⅓ &#8531; {one-third}
⅔ &#8532; {two-thirds}
⅕ &#8533; {one-fifth}
⅖ &#8534; {two-fifths}
⅗ &#8535; {three-fifths}
⅘ &#8536; {four-fifths}
⅙ &#8537; {one-sixth}
⅚ &#8538; {five-sixths}
⅛ &#8539; {one-eighth}
⅜ &#8540; {three-eighths}
⅝ &#8541; {five-eighths}
⅞ &#8542; {seven-eighths}

8. Lines & Spaces

‌ &zwnj; &#8204; {zero width non-joiner}
‍ &zwj; &#8205; {zero width joiner}
‾ &oline; &#8254; {overline}
‑ &#8209; {small dash}
– &ndash; &#150; &#8211; {en dash}
— &mdash; &#151; &#8212; {em dash}
― &#8213; {long dash}
‗ &#8215; {short double underline}
▬ &#9644;
─ &#9472;
│ &#9474;
═ &#9552;
║ &#9553;
┌ &#9484;
┐ &#9488;
└ &#9492;
┘ &#9496;
╔ &#9556;
╗ &#9559;
╚ &#9562;
╝ &#9565;
├ &#9500;
┤ &#9508;
┬ &#9516;
┴ &#9524;
┼ &#9532;
╒ &#9554;
╕ &#9557;
╘ &#9560;
╛ &#9563;
╓ &#9555;
╖ &#9558;
╙ &#9561;
╜ &#9564;
╞ &#9566;
╡ &#9569;
╥ &#9573;
╨ &#9576;
╟ &#9567;
╢ &#9570;
╤ &#9572;
╧ &#9575;
╠ &#9568;
╣ &#9571;
╦ &#9574;
╩ &#9577;
╪ &#9578;
╫ &#9579;
╬ &#9580;

9. Arrows

← &larr; &#8592; {left arrow}
→ &rarr; &#8594; {right arrow}
↑ &uarr; &#8593; {up arrow}
↓ &darr; &#8595; {down arrow}
↔ &harr; &#8596; {left-right arrow}
↕ &#8597; &#8616; {up-down arrow}

10. Boxes

▀ &#9600; {solid half-box top}
▄ &#9604; {solid half-box bottom}
▌ &#9612; {solid half-box left}
▐ &#9616; {solid half-box right}
░ &#9617; {dither light}
▒ &#9618; {dither medium}
▓ &#9619; {dither heavy}
█ &#9608; {full box}
■ &#■ {solid medium square}
□ &#9633; {hollow medium square}
▪ &#9642; {solid small square}
▫ &#9643; {hollow small square}

11. Astronomical Symbols

☉ &#9737; {the Sun}
🜚 &#128794; {the Sun with one ray}
🌞 &#127774; {the face of the Sun}
☽ &#9789; {Moon: first quarter, increscent, waxing}
🌕 &#127765; {Moon: full}
☾ &#9790; {Moon: last quarter, decrescent, waning}
🌑 &#127761; {Moon: new}
🌛 &#127771; {Moon: first quarter, increscent, waxing}
🌝 &#127773; {Moon: full}
🌜 &#127772; {Moon: last quarter, decrescent, waning}
🌚 &#127770; {Moon: new}
☿ &#9791; {Planet: Mercury}
♀ &#9792; {Planet: Venus}
♁ &#9793; {Planet: Earth}
🜨 &#128808; {Planet: Earth}
♂ &#9794; {Planet: Mars}
♃ &#9795; {Planet: Jupiter}
♄ &#9796; {Planet: Saturn}
⛢ &#9954; {Planet: Uranus}
♅ &#9797; {Planet: Uranus}
♆ &#9798; {Planet: Neptune}
♇ &#9799; {Dwarf Planet: Pluto}
⚳ &#9907; {Dwarf Planet: Ceres}
⚴ &#9908; {Asteroid: Pallas}
⚵ &#9909; {Asteroid: Juno}
⚶ &#9910; {Asteroid: Vesta}
🍷 &#127863; {Asteroid: Hebe}
⚘ &#9880; {Asteroid: Flora}
⚕ &#9877; {Asteroid: Hygeia}
☊ &#9738; {ascending node}
☋ &#9739; {descending node}
☌ &#9740; {conjunction}
☍ &#9741; {opposition}
□ &#9633; {quadrature}
☄ &#9732; {comet}
★ &#9733; {star}

12. Zodiac

♈ &#9800; {Aries, Ari, ram}
♉ &#9801; {Taurus, Tau, bull}
♊ &#9802; {Gemini, Gem, twins}
♋ &#9803; {Cancer, Cnc, crab}
♌ &#9804; {Leo, Leo, lion}
♍ &#9805; {Virgo, Vir, virgin}
♎ &#9806; {Libra, Lib, scales}
♏ &#9807; {Scorpius, Sco, scorpion}
♐ &#9808; {Sagittarius, Sgr, archer}
♑ &#9809; {Capricoruns, Cap, sea-goat}
♒ &#9810; {Aquarius, Aqr, waterbearer}
♓ &#9811; {Pisces, Psc, fish}

13. Playing Card Suits

♠ &spades; &#9824; {spade card suit}
♣ &clubs; &#9827; {club card suit}
♥ &hearts; &#9829; {heart card suit}
♦ &diams; &#9830; {diamond card suit}

14. Unclassified Characters

‹ &lsaquo; &#139; &#8249; {left single angle quote}
› &rsaquo; &#155; &#8250; {right single angle quote}
« &#171; {left double angle quote}
» &#187; {right double angle quote}
ƒ &fnof; &#402; &#131;
· &middot; &#183; &#903; &#8729;
• &bull; &#149; &#8226; {bullet}
¦ &brvbar; &#166;
ſ &#383;
۞ &#1758;
۩ &#1769;
٭ &#1645;
੪ &#2666;
૪ &#2794;
๏ &#3663;
๐ &#3664;
ஃ &#2947;
჻ &#4347;
܀ &#1792;
▲ &#9650;
▼ &#9660;
► &#9658;
◄ &#9668;
○ &#9675;
● &#9679;
◦ &#9702;
◘ &#9688;
◙ &#9689;
◊ &loz; &#9674; {lozenge}
⌂ &#8962;
☺ &#9786;
☻ &#9787;
☼ &#9788;
&#11; {male symbol small}
♂ &#9794; {male symbol large}
&#12; {female symbol small}
♀ &#9792; {female symbol large}
♪ &#9834; {single music note}
♫ &#9835; {double music note}
₪ &#8362;
₫ &#8363;
ℓ &#8467;
℅ &#8453; {care-of}
№ &#8470; {No.}

15. Character Modifiers

ˆ &circ; &#136; &#710; {circumflex}
˜ &#152; &#732; {tilde}
¨ &uml; &#168; {umlat or diaeresis}
´ &acute; &#180; &#900; {acute accent}
¸ &cedil; &#184; {cedilla}
ˇ &#711; {caron}
ˉ &#713; {line above}
˘ &#728; {cup}
˙ &#729; {dot}
˛ &#731; {tail}
˝ &#733; {double quotes}
΅ &#901; {acute & umlat}
˚ &#730; {ring}

16. Modified Latin Letters

See range 7680-7929 for many more.
À &Agrave; &#192;
Á &Aacute; &#193;
 &Acirc; &#194;
à &Atilde; &#195;
Ä &Auml; &#196;
Å &Aring; &#197;
Ạ &#7840;
à &agrave; &#224;
á &aacute; &#225;
â &acirc; &#226;
ã &atilde; &#227;
ä &auml; &#228;
å &aring; &#229;
ạ &#7841;
Ả &#7842;
Ấ &#7844;
Ầ &#7846;
Ẩ &#7848;
Ẫ &#7850;
Ậ &#7852;
Ắ &#7854;
ả &#7843;
ấ &#7845;
ầ &#7847;
ẩ &#7849;
ẫ &#7851;
ậ &#7853;
ắ &#7855;
Ằ &#7856;
Ẳ &#7858;
Ẵ &#7860;
Ặ &#7862;
Ā &#256;
Ă &#258;
Ǎ &#461;
ằ &#7857;
ẳ &#7859;
ẵ &#7861;
ặ &#7863;
ā &#257;
ă &#259;
ǎ &#462;
Ą &#260;
Ǻ &#506;
Æ &AElig; &#198;
Ǽ &#508;
Ά &#902;
ą &#261;
ǻ &#507;
æ &aelig; &#230;
ǽ &#509;
ß &szlig; &#223;
Ć &#262;
Ĉ &#264;
Ċ &#266;
Č &#268;
Ç &Ccedil; &#199;
ć &#263;
ĉ &#265;
ċ &#267;
č &#269;
ç &ccedil; &#231;
Ď &#270;
Đ &#272;
Ð &ETH; &#208;
ď &#271;
đ &#273;
ð &eth; &#240;
È &Egrave; &#200;
É &Eacute; &#201;
Ê &Ecirc; &#202;
Ë &Euml; &#203;
Ẹ &#7864;
Ẻ &#7866;
Ẽ &#7868;
è &egrave; &#232;
é &eacute; &#233;
ê &ecirc; &#234;
ë &euml; &#235;
ẹ &#7865;
ẻ &#7867;
ẽ &#7869;
Ế &#7870;
Ề &#7872;
Ể &#7874;
Ễ &#7876;
Ệ &#7878;
Έ &#904;
ế &#7871;
ề &#7873;
ể &#7875;
ễ &#7877;
ệ &#7879;
Ē &#274;
Ĕ &#276;
Ė &#278;
Ę &#280;
Ě &#282;
Ə &#399; &#1240;
ē &#275;
ĕ &#277;
ė &#279;
ę &#281;
ě &#283;
ə &#601; &#1241;
₣ &#8355;
Ĝ &#284;
Ğ &#286;
Ġ &#288;
Ģ &#290;
Ή &#905;
Ĥ &#292;
Ħ &#294;
ĝ &#285;
ğ &#287;
ġ &#289;
ģ &#291;
ĥ &#293;
ħ &#295;
Ì &Igrave; &#204;
Í &Iacute; &#205;
Î &Icirc; &#206;
Ï &Iuml; &#207;
Ỉ &#7880;
Ị &#7882;
Ί &#906;
ì &igrave; &#236;
í &iacute; &#237;
î &icirc; &#238;
ï &iuml; &#239;
ỉ &#7881;
ị &#7883;
Ĩ &#296;
Ī &#298;
Ĭ &#300;
Ǐ &#463;
Į &#302;
İ &#304;
ĩ &#297;
ī &#299;
ĭ &#301;
ǐ &#464;
į &#303;
ı &#305;
IJ &#306;
Ĵ &#308;
Ķ &#310;
ĸ &#312;
ij &#307;
ĵ &#309;
ķ &#311;
Ĺ &#313;
Ļ &#315;
Ľ &#317;
Ŀ &#319;
Ł &#321;
ĺ &#314;
ļ &#316;
ľ &#318;
ŀ &#320;
ł &#322;
Ñ &Ntilde; &#209;
Ń &#323;
Ņ &#325;
Ň &#327;
Ŋ &#330;
ñ &ntilde; &#241;
ń &#324;
ņ &#326;
ň &#328;
ŋ &#331;
ʼn &#329;
Ò &Ograve; &#210;
Ó &Oacute; &#211;
Ô &Ocirc; &#212;
Õ &Otilde; &#213;
Ö &Ouml; &#214;
Ọ &#7884;
Ỏ &#7886;
ò &ograve; &#242;
ó &oacute; &#243;
ô &ocirc; &#244;
õ &otilde; &#245;
ö &ouml; &#246;
ọ &#7885;
ỏ &#7887;
Ố &#7888;
Ồ &#7890;
Ổ &#7892;
Ỗ &#7894;
Ộ &#7896;
Ớ &#7898;
Ờ &#7900;
ố &#7889;
ồ &#7891;
ổ &#7893;
ỗ &#7895;
ộ &#7897;
ớ &#7899;
ờ &#7901;
Ở &#7902;
Ỡ &#7904;
Ợ &#7906;
Ō &#332;
Ŏ &#334;
Ǒ &#465;
Ő &#336;
ở &#7903;
ỡ &#7905;
ợ &#7907;
ō &#333;
ŏ &#335;
ǒ &#466;
ő &#337;
Ơ &#416;
Ό &#908;
Ø &Oslash; &#216;
Ǿ &#510;
Ө &#1256;
ơ &#417;
ø &oslash; &#248;
ǿ &#511;
ө &#1257;
Π&OElig; &#140; &#338;
Þ &THORN; &#222;
œ &oelig; &#156; &#339;
þ &thorn; &#254;
Ŕ &#340;
Ŗ &#342;
Ř &#344;
ŕ &#341;
ŗ &#343;
ř &#345;
Ś &#346;
Ŝ &#348;
Ş &#350;
Š &Scaron; &#138; &#352;
ś &#347;
ŝ &#349;
ş &#351;
š &scaron; &#154; &#353;
Ţ &#354;
Ť &#356;
Ŧ &#358;
ţ &#355;
ť &#357;
ŧ &#359;
Ù &Ugrave; &#217;
Ú &Uacute; &#218;
Û &Ucirc; &#219;
Ü &Uuml; &#220;
Ũ &#360;
Ū &#362;
Ů &#366;
ù &ugrave; &#249;
ú &uacute; &#250;
û &ucirc; &#251;
ü &uuml; &#252;
ũ &#361;
ū &#363;
ů &#367;
Ű &#368;
Ų &#370;
Ụ &#7908;
Ủ &#7910;
Ư &#431;
Ứ &#7912;
Ừ &#7914;
ű &#369;
ų &#371;
ụ &#7909;
ủ &#7911;
ư &#432;
ứ &#7913;
ừ &#7915;
Ử &#7916;
Ữ &#7918;
Ự &#7920;
Ǖ &#469;
Ǘ &#471;
Ǚ &#473;
Ǜ &#475;
ử &#7917;
ữ &#7919;
ự &#7921;
ǖ &#470;
ǘ &#472;
ǚ &#474;
ǜ &#476;
Ŭ &#364;
Ǔ &#467;
ŭ &#365;
ǔ &#468;
Ṽ &#7804;
ṽ &#7805;
Ṿ &#7806;
ṿ &#7807;
Ŵ &#372;
Ẅ &#7812;
ŵ &#373;
ẅ &#7813;
Ý &Yacute; &#221;
Ÿ &Yuml; &#159; &#376;
Ŷ &#374;
Ύ &#910;
ý &yacute; &#253;
ÿ &yuml; &#255;
ŷ &#375;
Ž &#142; &#381;
Ź &#377;
Ż &#379;
ž &#158; &#382;
ź &#378;
ż &#380;

17. Greek Letters

Α &Alpha; &#913;
Β &Beta; &#914;
Γ &Gamma; &#915;
Δ &Delta; &#916;
Ε &Epsilon; &#917;
Ζ &Zeta; &#918;
Η &Eta; &#919;
α &alpha; &#945;
β &beta; &#946;
γ &gamma; &#947;
δ &delta; &#948;
ε &epsilon; &#949;
ζ &zeta; &#950;
η &eta; &#951;
Θ &Theta; &#920;
Ι &Iota; &#921;
Κ &Kappa; &#922;
Λ &Lambda; &#923;
Μ &Mu; &#924;
Ν &Nu; &#925;
Ξ &Xi; &#926;
θ &theta; &#952;
ι &iota; &#953;
κ &kappa; &#954;
λ &lambda; &#955;
μ &mu; &#956;
ν &nu; &#957;
ξ &xi; &#958;
Ο &Omicron; &#927;
Π &Pi; &#928;
Ρ &Rho; &#929;
Σ &Sigma; &#931;
Τ &Tau; &#932;
Υ &Upsilon; &#933;
Φ &Phi; &#934;
ο &omicron; &#959;
π &pi; &#960;
ρ &rho; &#961;
σ &sigma; &#963;
τ &tau; &#964;
υ &upsilon; &#965;
φ &phi; &#966;
Χ &Chi; &#935;
Ψ &Psi; &#936;
Ω &Omega; &#937;
χ &chi; &#967;
ψ &psi; &#968;
ω &omega; &#969;

18. Modified Greek Letters.

See range 7936-8188 for many more.
Ϊ &#938;
Ϋ &#939;
ά &#940;
έ &#941;
ή &#942;
ί &#943;
ΰ &#944;
ϊ &#970;
ϋ &#971;
ό &#972;
ύ &#973;
ώ &#974;
Ώ &#911;
ΐ &#912;